# ohneconker

## robots.txt stuff for mastodon

User-agent: BoardReader
User-agent: BoardTracker
User-agent: Gigabot
User-agent: Twiceler
User-agent: dotbot
User-agent: Baidu
User-agent: Baiduspider
User-agent: Baiduspider-video
User-agent: Baiduspider-image
User-agent: NaverBot
User-agent: Sosospider
User-agent: Yandex
User-agent: YoudaoBot
User-agent: Yeti
User-agent: proximic
User-agent: sogou
User-agent: sogou spider
User-agent: Sogou web spider
Disallow: /

Disallow:

User-agent: *
Disallow: /@faketaoist
Disallow: /@faketaoist$ .. (idem for the other users ## 在vps已有毛象的基础上安装bookwyrm 和官方教程一模一样，除了.envdocker-compose.yml: # SECURITY WARNING: keep the secret key used in production secret! SECRET_KEY=OhGezuz2021 # SECURITY WARNING: don't run with debug turned on in production! DEBUG=false USE_HTTPS=true DOMAIN="你的域名" EMAIL=你的站长邮箱 # Used for deciding which editions to prefer DEFAULT_LANGUAGE="English" ## Leave unset to allow all hosts # ALLOWED_HOSTS="localhost,127.0.0.1,[::1]" MEDIA_ROOT=images/ OL_URL=https://openlibrary.org ## Database backend to use. ## Default is postgres, sqlite is for dev quickstart only (NOT production!!!) BOOKWYRM_DATABASE_BACKEND=postgres MEDIA_ROOT=images/ POSTGRES_PORT=5432 POSTGRES_PASSWORD="你的Postgres密码" POSTGRES_USER=fedireads POSTGRES_DB=fedireads POSTGRES_HOST=db # Redis activity stream manager MAX_STREAM_LENGTH=200 REDIS_ACTIVITY_HOST=redis_activity REDIS_ACTIVITY_PORT=6380 REDIS_ACTIVITY_PASSWORD="你的redis密码" # Redis as celery broker REDIS_BROKER_PORT=6379 REDIS_BROKER_PASSWORD=你的redis密码 #CELERY_BROKER=redis://:${REDIS_BROKER_PASSWORD}@redis_broker:${REDIS_BROKER_PORT}/0 #CELERY_RESULT_BACKEND=redis://:${REDIS_BROKER_PASSWORD}@redis_broker:${REDIS_BROKER_PORT}/0 FLOWER_PORT=8888 FLOWER_USER=你的花花用户名 FLOWER_PASSWORD="你的花花密码" EMAIL_HOST="smtp.eu.mailgun.org" EMAIL_PORT=587 EMAIL_HOST_USER=mail@域名.com EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD=你的这个mail@域名 的密码 EMAIL_USE_TLS=true EMAIL_USE_SSL=false # Set this to true when initializing certbot for domain, false when not CERTBOT_INIT=false # Thumbnails Generation ENABLE_THUMBNAIL_GENERATION=false # S3 configuration USE_S3=false AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID= AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY= # Commented are example values if you use a non-AWS, S3-compatible service # AWS S3 should work with only AWS_STORAGE_BUCKET_NAME and AWS_S3_REGION_NAME # non-AWS S3-compatible services will need AWS_STORAGE_BUCKET_NAME, # along with both AWS_S3_CUSTOM_DOMAIN and AWS_S3_ENDPOINT_URL # AWS_STORAGE_BUCKET_NAME= # "example-bucket-name" # AWS_S3_CUSTOM_DOMAIN=None # "example-bucket-name.s3.fr-par.scw.cloud" # AWS_S3_REGION_NAME=None # "fr-par" # AWS_S3_ENDPOINT_URL=None # "https://s3.fr-par.scw.cloud" # Preview image generation can be computing and storage intensive # ENABLE_PREVIEW_IMAGES=True # Specify RGB tuple or RGB hex strings, # or use_dominant_color_light / use_dominant_color_dark PREVIEW_BG_COLOR=use_dominant_color_light # Change to #FFF if you use use_dominant_color_dark PREVIEW_TEXT_COLOR="#363636" PREVIEW_IMG_WIDTH=1200 PREVIEW_IMG_HEIGHT=630 PREVIEW_DEFAULT_COVER_COLOR="#002549"  docker-compose.yml version: '3' services: nginx: image: nginx:latest ports: - 8001:8001 depends_on: - web networks: - main volumes: - ./nginx:/etc/nginx/conf.d - static_volume:/app/static - media_volume:/app/images db: build: postgres-docker env_file: .env entrypoint: /bookwyrm-entrypoint.sh command: cron postgres volumes: - pgdata:/var/lib/postgresql/data - backups:/backups networks: - main ports: - 5433:5432 web: build: . env_file: .env command: gunicorn bookwyrm.wsgi:application --bind 0.0.0.0:8000 volumes: - .:/app - static_volume:/app/static - media_volume:/app/images depends_on: - db - celery_worker - redis_activity networks: - main ports: - 8000:8000 redis_activity: image: redis command: redis-server --requirepass${REDIS_ACTIVITY_PASSWORD} --appendonly yes --port ${REDIS_ACTIVITY_PORT} volumes: - ./redis.conf:/etc/redis/redis.conf - redis_activity_data:/data env_file: .env networks: - main restart: on-failure redis_broker: image: redis command: redis-server --requirepass${REDIS_BROKER_PASSWORD} --appendonly yes --port ${REDIS_BROKER_PORT} volumes: - ./redis.conf:/etc/redis/redis.conf - redis_broker_data:/data env_file: .env ports: - 6380:6379 networks: - main restart: on-failure celery_worker: env_file: .env build: . networks: - main command: celery -A celerywyrm worker -l info volumes: - .:/app - static_volume:/app/static - media_volume:/app/images depends_on: - db - redis_broker restart: on-failure flower: build: . command: flower -A celerywyrm env_file: .env volumes: - .:/app networks: - main depends_on: - db - redis_broker restart: on-failure ports: - 8888:8888 volumes: pgdata: backups: static_volume: media_volume: redis_broker_data: redis_activity_data: networks: main:  以及nginx的reverse proxy: server { server_name 域名; listen [::]:80; listen 80; add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000;includeSubDomains" always; rewrite ^ https://$server_name$request_uri; location / { return 301 https://$host$request_uri; } } # SSL code ssl_certificate /etc/letsencrypt/live/域名/fullchain.pem; ssl_certificate_key /etc/letsencrypt/live/域名/privkey.pem; server { listen [::]:443 ssl http2; listen 443 ssl http2; server_name 域名; add_header Strict-Transport-Security "max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains" always; location / { proxy_pass http://localhost:8000; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For$proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_set_header Host $host; } location /images/ { proxy_pass http://localhost:8001; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For$proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_set_header Host $host; } location /static/ { proxy_pass http://localhost:8001; proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For$proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
proxy_set_header Host $host; } }  ## S3 设置 # S3 configuration USE_S3=true AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=你的aws的ID AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=你的aws的id的密码 AWS_STORAGE_BUCKET_NAME="桶名字" AWS_S3_CUSTOM_DOMAIN="桶名字.桶地区.桶服务商.com" # "example-bucket-name.s3.fr-par.scw.cloud" AWS_S3_REGION_NAME="地区" # "fr-par" AWS_S3_ENDPOINT_URL="https://s3.fr-par.scw.cloud"  (S3部分指路万能的皮皮站长教程 ## 升级： git pull docker-compose build docker-compose exec web python manage.py migrate docker-compose exec web python manage.py collectstatic --no-input docker-compose up -d docker system prune -a  ## Bookwyrm 安装教程 安装之前你需要： 1. 购买域名 2. 配置好DNS服务器 3. 购买VPS服务 4. 设置好VPS服务器的安全配置 5. 安装docker和docker-compose （指路皮皮站长） sudo curl -L "https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/download/1.27.4/docker-compose-$(uname -s)-$(uname -m)" -o /usr/local/bin/docker-compose sudo chmod +x /usr/local/bin/docker-compose  1. 如果你的vps上已经有毛象了的话，建议用sudo useradd -r -m -d /home/bookwyrm -U -G docker bookwyrm 给Bookwyrm的服务创建一个专门的系统用户。 o3o站皮皮站长的毛象搭建教程里面有详细解释。 该教程假设你使用的系统是ubuntu 20.04。 ## 在崭新的vps服务器上安装bookwyrm ssh至你的vps服务器 cd /home/ mkdir bookwyrm && cd bookwyrm git clone https://github.com/bookwyrm-social/bookwyrm.git git checkout production cp .env.prod.example .env  用nano 或者 vi 编辑.env文件。(nano .env 或者 vi .env)。 .env设置如下: # SECURITY WARNING: keep the secret key used in production secret! SECRET_KEY="你的密码" # SECURITY WARNING: don't run with debug turned on in production! DEBUG=false USE_HTTPS=true DOMAIN=你的域名 EMAIL=你的站长邮箱 # Used for deciding which editions to prefer DEFAULT_LANGUAGE="English" ## Leave unset to allow all hosts # ALLOWED_HOSTS="localhost,127.0.0.1,[::1]" MEDIA_ROOT=images/ PGPORT=5432 POSTGRES_PASSWORD=你的数据库密码 POSTGRES_USER=fedireads POSTGRES_DB=fedireads POSTGRES_HOST=db # Redis activity stream manager MAX_STREAM_LENGTH=200 REDIS_ACTIVITY_HOST=redis_activity REDIS_ACTIVITY_PORT=6379 REDIS_ACTIVITY_PASSWORD=你的redis密码 # Redis as celery broker REDIS_BROKER_PORT=6379 REDIS_BROKER_PASSWORD=你的redis密码 FLOWER_PORT=8888 FLOWER_USER=你的flower用户名 FLOWER_PASSWORD=你的flower密码 EMAIL_HOST=smtp.mailgun.org EMAIL_PORT=587 EMAIL_HOST_USER=你的bookwyrm服务的邮箱地址 EMAIL_HOST_PASSWORD=你的服务邮箱密码 EMAIL_USE_TLS=true EMAIL_USE_SSL=false # Thumbnails Generation ENABLE_THUMBNAIL_GENERATION=false # S3 configuration USE_S3=false AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID= AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY= # Commented are example values if you use a non-AWS, S3-compatible service # AWS S3 should work with only AWS_STORAGE_BUCKET_NAME and AWS_S3_REGION_NAME # non-AWS S3-compatible services will need AWS_STORAGE_BUCKET_NAME, # along with both AWS_S3_CUSTOM_DOMAIN and AWS_S3_ENDPOINT_URL # AWS_STORAGE_BUCKET_NAME= # "example-bucket-name" # AWS_S3_CUSTOM_DOMAIN=None # "example-bucket-name.s3.fr-par.scw.cloud" # AWS_S3_REGION_NAME=None # "fr-par" # AWS_S3_ENDPOINT_URL=None # "https://s3.fr-par.scw.cloud" # Preview image generation can be computing and storage intensive # ENABLE_PREVIEW_IMAGES=True # Specify RGB tuple or RGB hex strings, # or use_dominant_color_light / use_dominant_color_dark PREVIEW_BG_COLOR=use_dominant_color_light # Change to #FFF if you use use_dominant_color_dark PREVIEW_TEXT_COLOR=#363636 PREVIEW_IMG_WIDTH=1200 PREVIEW_IMG_HEIGHT=630 PREVIEW_DEFAULT_COVER_COLOR=#002549  ## Nginx配置 还没写完，咕咕咕咕 ## 关于writefreely恶意注册 前情提要：不正之风被恶意注册了700多个博客，时间线充满了机器生成的垃圾英文内容。 网上找教程说是直接删掉mysql的相关内容就好。然而翻开以前的sql笔记，呵，我不认识它，它也不认识我，随即拜托朋友帮忙修好了不正之风。 修复前请自己备份writefreely的database。 以下是修复过程： sudo mysql use writefreely show tables; select * from users where users.created >= '2021-07-26 00:00:00';  注：”select * from users where users.created >= '2021-07-26 00:00:00';” 这里的时间换成你自己的被攻击的时间。这条命令过后会显示所有在这时间之后才注册的用户，即恶意注册用户。后面的命令同上，时间换成你自己的被攻击的时间。 select * from posts inner join users on posts.owner_id = users.id where users.created >= '2021-07-26 00:00:00';  Tables such as 'collectionkeys', 'collections' 逻辑类似，不累述。 删光之后你的writefreely实例就恢复了正常！完结撒花★,°:.☆(￣▽￣)/$:.°★

writefreely有一个叫‘delete-user’ 的功能。不太喜欢直接在database删条目的可以利用这个功能，不过我不确定它是否是只删除用户，文章变孤儿，还是连文章带用户一起删。

## Node.js Notes

##### '==' vs '==='
console.log(19 == '19') //true
console.log(19 === '19') //false

##### javascript pointer shit
var Bucky = {
favFood: "bacon",
favMovie: "Chappie"
};

var Person = Bucky;
console.log(Bucky.favFood); //the print result would be "salad"

##### nodejs “this”
var Bucky = {
printFirstName: function() {
console.log("My Name is Bucky");
console.log(this === Bucky);
}
};
Bucky.printFirstName(); //prints "True"

//The default calling context is global
function doSomethingWorthless(){
console.log("\nI am a worthless piece of shit");
console.log(this === global);
}
doSomethingWorthless(); //prints "I am ... shit" and "true"

##### nodejs Prototyping
function User(){
this.name = "";
this.life = 100;
this.giveLife = function giveLife(targetPlayer) {
targetPlayer.life +=1;
console.log(this.name + "give 1 life to " + targetPlayer.name);
}
}

var Bucky = new User();
var Wendy = new User();
Bucky.name = "Bucky";
Wendy.name = "Wendy";

Bucky.giveLife(Wendy); //now Wendy 101, Bucky 100 lives.

//you can add functions to all objects
User.prototype.uppercut = function uppercut (targetPlayer){
targetPlayer.life -=3;
};

Wendy.uppercut(Bucky); //now Wendy 101, Bucky 97

//You can add properties to all objects
User.prototype.magic = 60;//now both Wendy and Bucky have 60 magics.

##### Nodejs Modules
//filename: movie.js
module.exports ={
printAvatar: function(){
console.log("Avatar");
},
printChappie: function(){
console.log("Chappie");
},
favMovie: "The Matrix"
};


... is the same thing as

//filename: movie.js
//module.exports = {};

function printAvatar(){
console.log("Avatar");
}

function printChappie(){
console.log("Chappie");
}

var favMovie = "The Matrix";

module.exports.PrintAvatar = printAvatar;
module.exports.printChappie = printChappie;
module.exports.favMovie = favMovie;


in the importing javascript file, you type:

var movies = require('./movies');
movies.printAvatar();
movies.printChappie();

##### Object Factory
//movies.js
module.exports = function () {
return{
favMovie: ""
}
};


in emily.js:

var movies = require('./movies');

var emilysMovies = movies();
emilysMovies.favMovie = "The Notebook";
console.log("blablabla" + emilysMovies.favMovie);


in bucky.js

var movies = require('./movies');

var buckysMovies = movies();
console.log("blablabla" + buckysMovies.favMovie);


in app.js

require('./emily');
require('./bucky');


The terminal will print:

blablabla The Notebook
blablabla

##### Creating a Basic Server
var http = require('http');

function onRequest(request, response){
console.log("A user made a request" + request.url);
response.write("Here is some data");
response.end();
}

http.createServer(onRequest).listen(8888);
console.log("Server is now running...");

##### Connect
var connect = require('connect');
var http = require('http');

var app = connect();

function doFirst(request, response, next){
console.log("Bacon");
next();
}

function doSecond(request, response, next){
console.log("Tuna");
next();
}

app.use(doFirst);
app.use(doSecond);

http.createServer(app).listen(8888);
console.log("Server is running.");


Optional paging:

var connect = require('connect');
var http = require('http');

var app = connect();

function profile(request, response){
console.log('User requested profile');
}

function forum(request, response){
console.log('User requested forum');
}

app.use('/profile', profile);
app.use('/forum', forum);

http.createServer(app).listen(8888);
console.log("Server is running.");


## Darts, Pleats, and Gathers

#裁缝合集Couture

### Darts

Darts are most often used to shape the back of the skirt. A fitted, darted front shows every bump and curve of the body. If you don’t have a flat tummy, front darts may not be flattering and can be eliminated with a stitching technique called staystitch plus.

When making darts, careful marking and stitching go hand in hand. Position pins all along the stitching line, with one horizontal pin marking the tip of the dart. Make sure that pins are in straight lines along both legs of the dart.

Stitch from the wide end of the dart, backstitching as you begin in order to secure the stitches (1). Remove the pins as you come to them.

When you're ½ in. from the tip of the dart, change to a short stitch length (1.5mm) and stitch the last few stitches along the edge of the fabric. Shorter stitches increase stitching accuracy and make tying knots or backstitching unnecessary. Stitch evenly off the edge to prevent a bubble from forming at the tip of the dart (2).

Sew a smooth and true dart every time by mentally drawing a line from the first stitches to the tip, pointing the machine in that direction. This visualization is helpful even if you’ve marked the stitching line with chalk.

Press the dart on a ham. A perfectly pressed dart is nearly invisible on the right side of the fabric.

## Playing around with rails and gem

I tried to set up a sort of soundcloud service today, built using Ruby on Rails for backend with PostgreSQL for the database and ReactJS for the front end.

While I was connected to the vps, “rails server”-ed the server, I had to left my desk for a few minutes, and by the time I was back, the ssh connection was already “reset by peer”.

Then when I was back connected again and tried to relauch the rails server, it gave a warning of “Server is already running in Rails”.

### Here is the solution that worked for me:

The following is a copy of the content linked above..

##### Root Cause:

Because PID is locked in a file and web server thinks that if that file exists then it means it is already running. Normally when a web server is closed that file is deleted, but in some cases, proper deletion doesn't happen so you have to remove the file manually New Solutions

when you run rails server:

• Booting WEBrick

• Rails 4.0.4 application starting in development on http://localhost:8080

• Run rails server -h for more startup options

• Ctrl-C to shutdown server

A server is already running. Check

/your_project_path/tmp/pids/server.pid.


Exiting

So place your path shown here...

/your_project_path/tmp/pids/server.pid


...and remove this server.pid file:

rm /your_project_path/tmp/pids/server.pid


OR Incase you're server was detached then follow below guidelines:

If you detached you rails server by using command “rails -d” then remove rails detached server by using command

ps -aef | grep rails


OR by this command

sudo lsof -wni tcp:8080


then

kill -9 pID


OR use this command

To find and kill process by port name on which that program is running. For 8080 replace port on which your program is running.

sudo kill -9 \$(lsof -i :8080 -t)


## Seams and Seam Finishes

#裁缝合集Couture

Stitching seams is one of the basic components of sewing.

With a little practice, you'll be able to sew perfect straight or curved seams and a variety of professional finishes.

Before you begin sewing, always test for the best stitch length, needle size, and type of thread for your fabric. Test the stitch length for appearance and strength as well as for ease in ripping. A too-long stitch length uses less thread, but creates a puckered seam.

Keep a supply of different needles on hand and use only the best quality—this is not a place to skimp. Change the needle before you begin each new garment and any time the needle hits a pin (listen for the sound of a blunt or bent needle piercing the cloth).

If you notice skipped stitches, or if the thread keeps breaking or fraying, try a different-size needle.

If that doesn’t help, try another brand of needle.

### Sewing Perfect Seams

For smooth seams, always cut, stitch, and press seams in the same direction. For skirts, this usually means working along the length of the garment, from hem to waistline.

To sew long side seams, place pins vertically on the stitching line, positioned so that you can pull them out as you sew. This saves time and—because you're not sewing over pins—it also saves wear and tear on the machine.

Pin the top and bottom of the seam first. Next match the notches, then match or ease the fabric in between. A fabric with “tooth” grabs or sticks to itself and thus requires fewer pins than a slippery fabric that moves and slides. You may need to hand-baste some hard-to-handle fabrics, such as velvet, before stitching.

Most seams are sewn with right sides together, using a 5/8-in. seam allowance. Some machines have this 5/8-in. width marked on the throat plate. A magnetic seam guide, which acts as a “fence” along which you can guide the fabric, is also a very helpful tool.

Always press a seam after stitching and before crossing it with another seam or detail.

Remember, stitching and pressing go hand in hand.

### Ripping out Seams

Ripping out seams is an essential part of sewing. Use the narrow point of the seam ripper to break a few stitches on one side of the seam. This frees the thread on the other side so that it can be pulled. Working from one end of the seam to the other, rip just a few stitches, grasp the thread with your fingers, and give it a good pull, disposing of the loose threads as you go.

Another way to rip stitches is to use the point of the ripper to break threads on one side of the fabric every 1 in. to 1 in. along the seam and then pull the long freed-up thread on the other side. (The disadvantage is that on the first side you're left with broken threads all along the seam that need to be removed.)

Never work the curved portion of the seam ripper between the two layers of the seam unless the fabric is heavy and very firmly woven.

Otherwise, you’re liable to rip the fabric as well as the threads.

### Finishes for Side Seams

Aim for simple, light, unobtrusive seam finishes. Test fabric scraps to see which seam finish is most compatible with your fabric. The seam finish should keep the seam edges from fraying and shouldn't show from the right side. If your fabric doesn’t ravel, the best seam finish is none at all.

#### Pinked Seams

Trimming with pinking shears is a classic, honest way to finish a seam (see photo). The ultimate in simplicity, it adds no bulk and won't show from the right side. After you sew the seam, trim away the smallest amount of fabric possible.

Test the pinking shears on fabric scraps first. On some fabrics, you can trim both layers of the seam allowance at one time. With other fabrics, to get a clean edge, you must open the seam allowance and trim single layers. Test both methods and compare the results.

Some pinking shears have a notched tip that will cut all the way to the end of the cut. Other brands work best if you don’t fully open the shears and if you don’t cut all the way to the points. Test to see how deep a cut you need to make to work smoothly.

There’s also a rotary cutter with a wavy blade that works well as a pinking tool.

A pinked-and-stitched edge is especially flat and ravel-resistant: Sew a line of stitching ¼ in. from the edge before the seam is sewn.

Pink the edges after seaming, without cutting the line of stitching.

### Seams For Bias-Cut Skirts

Cut, making 11-in. seams to allow the fabric to relax. Mark the seamline with basting. Press the pieces. Pin along the marked seamline and try on the garment. Adjust where necessary. You may need to make smaller seam allowances to compensate for the pieces’ having stretched slightly in length and contracted in width. Sew with a slightly shorter stitch length than usual, stretching the fabric as you sew. Because bias does not ravel, you won't need to finish the seams.

#### Zigzag Seams

Zigzag edges are quick and simple finishes. Both are made after the seam is sewn and pressed.

Both finishes have two disadvantages, however. First, the extra stitching and thread can add bulk to thin fabrics, which will keep them from lying flat. Second, these finishes, which aren’t found in ready-to-wear, shout “homemade.” I generally don’t use them, but you might want to experiment with them yourself.

For a zigzag finish, use a stitch of medium width and length. Stitch near the edge, but not along it, and trim close to the stitching. If your machine has this option, try a machine-overcast stitch. Stitch close to the edge so the points of the stitches fall almost at the edge of the fabric.

#### Serged Seams

The serger, or overlock machine, has transformed home sewing.

Although it doesn’t replace a conventional machine, a serger is very useful for quickly cutting and finishing seam edges in one fast and easy operation (above right).

Fuse interfacings to pockets and zipper areas before serging. If your fabric frays easily, serge all around the skirt, but on more stable fabrics, serge only the seams that will be pressed open. Serge the hem after you mark the length and trim to desired width.

When using a serger, it’s not necessary to cut wider seams than you normally would. The cutting edge of the serger trims just the ravelly edges before overcasting.

Use fine, soft thread, machine-embroidery thread, or texturized nylon to minimize the amount of thread impression “striking through” on the right side of the fabric. A 3-thread edge, using long staple polyester or coned “serger” thread, is the most versatile of the serged finishes. Or, if your machine has a 2-thread finish, try that for a flatter edge.

Serge a wide edge on fabrics that are heavy or bulky, and a narrow edge on flat fabrics that are lightweight to midweight.

### Finishes for Hems and Waistband Seams

For a flat and professional-looking finish, you can bind hems and waistband seams with a Hong Kong finish or with a rayon seam binding.

Hong Kong Finish The Hong Kong finish is a simple and elegant touch for medium to heavy fabrics. This flat, narrow binding makes a fine finish for hems or an inside waistband seam ona skirt (see photo on p. 52), but it’s too bulky for most side seams.

A Hong Kong finish has two lines of stitching and adds three layers of fabric to the edge. The seam edge is bound in bias strips of a lightweight fabric, such as China silk, rayon lining, silk, or polyester crepe de chine.

For the binding, cut ¼-in. wide bias strips, piecing the lengths as necessary. Press the bias strips to remove excess stretchability and to prevent them from rippling.

Before you stitch the waistband to the skirt, sew the binding to the seam edge, with right sides together, /s in. from the edges. (Bind the hem in the same way after marking and trimming it.)

Trim the seam edge to an even 1/8 in. using sharp long-blade shears, or a rotary cutter (1).

Wrap the binding around the seam edge and press. On the right side of the fabric, stitch in the “ditch” of the seam of the waistband and the binding—that is, where the two fabrics are sewn together (2). For accuracy, use an edgestitching foot with the needle in the center position.

On the wrong side of the fabric, trim the excess binding 1/8 in. from the stitching line (3). Bias doesn’t fray, so the binding won't ravel.

Rayon Seam Binding A flat woven-tape seam binding creates a dressmaker’s touch for bulky and flat fabrics that ravel. Use rayon rather than polyester—it’s softer, flatter, and more fluid. With just a bit of practice, you'll find this technique fast and simple.

Rayon seam binding adds less bulk than the Hong Kong finish. It has only one line of stitching and adds only two layers of fabric to the edge. This seam binding can also be used to finish the inside waistband edge and the hem edge.

Press the binding in half lengthwise, making one half slightly wider than the other. Hold the end in place with a straight pin as you work.

Position the narrow half of the binding on top of the right side of the fabric and stitch along this half (4). This way, you'll be sure that your stitches will catch the wider half of the binding on the other side of the fabric.

As you stitch along the edge of the binding, pull it slightly toward the fabric with your finger so that it wraps around and encases the raw edge. Press to eliminate puckers.

## Pressing

#裁缝合集Couture

Pressing seams and darts is the secret to making clothes that look professional.

### Tools

The best iron gets hot and stays hot and gives off a good shot of steam.

Always test a scrap of your fabric to determine the best setting to use.

You'll also need a clapper/pointer, a hardwood tool for flattening seams and pressing points; a pressing ham, a contoured device that looks like its namesake and is used to shape darts and curved seams; and a press cloth.

Press cloths protect the surface of the garment fabric, and professionals rely on them. Use a cotton, see-through press cloth for cottons, silks, and linens; a specially treated, heavy drill (cotton twill) press cloth and a scrap of wool for pressing wools.

The heavy cotton protects the wool fabric, particularly if you are ironing the right side of the fabric, and allows you to press with the iron set at a high temperature.

Wool pressed against wool prevents the fabric from flattening and becoming shiny. (Professional tailors often sew a square of wool to one area of the heavy-cotton press cloth in order to have both at hand.)

Test your fabric to see if it can be pressed on the right side. If right-side pressing changes the appearance of the fabric, always use a press cloth. Your fingers are also important pressing tools, especially for fabrics that are slippery or don’t hold shape easily.

Finger-press all seams before using the iron.

### Techniques

After sewing each seam and dart, press it flat, as it was sewn, to blend the stitches, smooth the fabric, and erase puckers.

Then press the seams open on the wrong side of the fabric. Use your fingers and the point of the iron to open the seam halves to lie flat as you work (1).

💡 1. Press the seam flat on the wrong side, holding the seam halves open as you work.

Press the seam or dart again on the right side of the fabric, using the press cloth if necessary (2).

💡 2. Press again from the right side, using a press cloth if necessary.

Unlike ironing, which is a sliding motion, pressing is a lifting and lowering motion.

As you work, use the clapper to flatten and cool the pressed area.

The hardwood absorbs heat and moisture, and the weight of the tool and the pounding flattens the stitched seam or dart. For some fabrics, such as cottons, rayons, and silks, just the weight of the clapper is enough to do the job; for wools, you may need to apply extra pressure.

Also press back darts and curved seams over the ham to build curves and shape the garment (3).

💡 3. Shape curved darts and seams by pressing them over a ham.

Press front darts over the ham’s flattest part to avoid rounding them.

Press all vertical darts toward the center of the garment.

After pressing, seams and darts should be so flat they almost disappear. Let the pressed area cool before readjusting the fabric on the ironing board.

##### Pressing the Stretch out of Bias
Before handling any piece of fabric that’s been cut on the bias, press the stretch out. This technique is straight from the workrooms of French couture. After pressing, the seams of bias-cut skirt panels can be sewn with minimum distortion. After the garment is finished, the hem will not sag, and the skirt will be less likely to stretch in length and decrease in width. Position the bias-cut skirt panel on a pressing surface that is long enough for the entire length. Steam-press, and as you do, gently stretch the fabric in the lengthwise direction of the skirt. Begin at one seam and work in radiating parallel lines across the panel to the other seam. Allow the fabric to cool before repositioning it. Repeat the process with all of the skirt panels. The hem may become uneven, but after you've measured it and hemmed it evenly, it will stay even.